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The Israeli Policy of Closure: Legal, Political, and Humanitarian Evaluation

Contents Page

SERIES STUDY (6)

The Israeli Policy of Closure

Legal, Political and Humanitarian Evaluation

PALESTINIAN CENTRE FOR HUMAN RIGHTS

Affiliate of : International Commission of Jurists – Geneva

Contents

Acronyms

Preface

Summary

Chapter One

Israeli Occupation of the Gaza Strip

Isolation and Economic Dependency

i. Israeli Military Orders and Economic Dependency

ii. The Permit System: Restrictions on Freedom of Movement

Chapter Two

Israel’s Policy of Closure

i. Background to the Closure Policy

The absolute closure of the Gaza Strip: 25th February and 26th September 1996

ii. Israel’s Security Justification for the Closures

A dubious justification

Chapter Three

The Impact of Closures on the Gaza Strip

i. Food and basic necessities

ii. Medical Services

Health facilities during the Interim Period Impact of 1996 closures on access to health care outside the Gaza Strip Restrictions on imports of medical supplies and facilities into Gaza

iii. Closures and Higher Education

The right to education

The case of Gaza students who study in the West Bank

iv. Economic Ramifications of Closures

Israel’s economic policy towards the Occupied Palestinian

Territories

v. An Economic Assessment of the February and September 1996

Absolute Closures

Migratory labour

Commercial import and exports

Agricultural sector

Fisheries sector

Industry and construction

vii. Restrictions on the Freedom of Movement and Separation of the

Occupied Territories

Safe passage

VIPs and senior PNA Officials

Palestinian prisoners held in Israel

Access to religious sites

Chapter Four

Legal Analysis

i. Legal Status of the Occupied Territories

  ii. Legal Status During the Interim Period

iii, Continuing Application of the Geneva Convention During the Interim Period

 Application of the Convention

Occupiers Law

Legislation

Settlements

Jerusalem

Humanitarian and Human Rights Law

Collective punishments and reprisals

Right to adequate food and health

Right to Education

iv. Legal Aspects of Closures as an Economic Weapon

Chapter Five

Closures in the Context of the Peace Process

i. Role of the International Community

ii. Obligation to Settle Disputes Peacefully

Chapter Six

Conclusions and recommendations

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