Palestinian Medical Personnel:

Between Fire and Their Work

29 September 2000 – 11 April 2001

 

 

A Report on Israeli Violations against Palestinian Medical Personnel

April 2001

 

 

 

 

Introduction *

International Humanitarian Law *

The Definition of Medical Personnel *

Violation of the Right to Life and Personal Security of Palestinian Medical Personnel *

1) Killing *

2) Dozens of Wounded Palestinian Medical Personnel *

3) Beating and Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment *

Shooting at Ambulances *

Attacks on Medical Facilities by Israeli Occupation Forces *

Disastrous Impact of the Internal Siege on Medical Care *

1) Violation of the Right of Medical Units and Transports to Free Movement *

2) Denial of the Entry of Medical Aid and Medicine into the OPT *

3) Impact of the Internal Siege on the Evacuation of Patients to Hospital *

Conclusion *

Medical Personnel Killed by Israeli Occupation Forces *

Medical Personnel Injured by Israeli Occupation Forces *

 

 

Introduction

The new Palestinian Intifada (Al-Aqsa Intifada) has witnesses a new form of violence committed by Israeli occupation forces against the Palestinian people. For the first time since their occupation of the Palestinian Territories in 1967, Israeli occupation forces have used heavy weaponry against the Palestinian people. They have escalated the excessive use of force, including willful killing and shelling from tanks, combat helicopters, and gunboats. The Israeli forces have used heavy and medium machine guns against Palestinian demonstrators, and resorted to snipers and guns equipped with silencers. They have also intensively shelled Palestinian residential areas and civilian and security facilities.

In the bloody clashes that erupted 29 September 2000, Palestinian medical personnel, transports and facilities were targeted by Israeli occupation forces, as well as settlers who have made their home on occupied territory. The use of force by Israeli occupation forces was indiscriminate and Palestinian medical personnel, who have been always clearly marked, have been targeted by the Israeli forces and settlers.

International Humanitarian Law

Aggressive belligerent actions by Israeli occupation forces and settlers against Palestinian civilians in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT) violate international humanitarian law. These actions are considered grave breaches of the Fourth Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 1949 (hereafter the Fourth Geneva Convention or the Convention). Deliberately targeting Palestinian medical personnel and vehicles by the Israeli forces and settlers is a form of willful killing, which is a grave breach of the Convention, under Articles 146 and 147.

Article 14 of the Convention provides:

In time of peace, the High Contracting Parties, and after the outbreak of hostilities, the Parties thereto, may establish in their own territory, and if the need arises, in occupied areas, hospital and safety zones and localities so organized as to protect from the effects of war, wounded, sick and aged persons, children under fifteen, expectant mothers and mothers of children under 7…

Article 18 of the Convention provides:

Civilian hospitals organized to give care to the wounded and sick, the infirm and maternity cases, may in no circumstances be the object of attack, but shall at all times be respected and protected by the Parties of the conflict…

Article 20 of the Convention provides:

Persons regularly and solely engaged in the operation and administration of civilian hospitals, including the personnel engaged in the search for, removal and transporting of and caring for wounded and sick civilians, the infirm and maternity cases, shall be respected and protected…

Article 23 of the Convention provides:

Each High Contracting Party shall allow the free passage of all consignments of medical and hospital stores and objects necessary for religious worship intended only for civilians of another High Contracting Party even if the latter is its adversary…

The Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, prescribes mechanisms for protecting medical personnel and the facilitation of the evacuation of the wounded and sick in areas of armed conflicts.

This report highlights violations of human rights and international humanitarian law by Israeli occupation forces and settlers against Palestinian medical personnel. In particular, this report emphasizes the rights of medical personnel to life, security, safety, free movement in medical vehicles to save lives of the wounded, and protection, ensured by all international instruments both in time of peace and in time of belligerent occupation. This report covers the period 29 September 2000 (the outbreak of the Al-Aqsa Intifada) to 11 April 2001.

The Definition of Medical Personnel

The Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, defines medical personnel. Article 8 - Section 1 - Part II provides:

For the purposes of this Protocol:

(c)“Medical personnel” means those persons assigned, by a party to the conflict, exclusively to the medical purposes enumerated under sub-paragraph (e) or to the administration of medical units or to the operation or administration of medical transports. Such assignments may be either permanent or temporary. The term includes:

  1. Medical personnel of a party to the conflict, whether military or civilian, including those described in the First and Second Conventions, and those assigned to civil defense organizations;

(ii) Medical personnel of national Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) Societies and other national voluntary aid societies duly recognized and authorized by a party to the conflict;

(iii) Medical personnel of medical units or medical transports describes in Article 9, paragraph 2;

  1. “Religious personnel” means military or civilian persons, such as complains, who are exclusively engaged in the work of their ministry and attached:

  1. To the armed forces of a party to the conflict;

  2. To medical units or medical transports of a party to the conflict;

  3. To medical units or medical transports described in Article 9, paragraph 2; or

  4. To civil defense organizations of a party to the conflict.

The attachment of religious personnel may be either permanent or temporary, and the relevant provisions mentioned under sub-paragraph (k) apply to them;

(e)“Medical units” means establishments and other units, whether military or civilian, organized for medical purposes, namely the search for, collection, transportation, diagnosis or treatment – including first-aid – of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, or for the prevention of disease. The term includes, for example, hospitals and other similar units, blood transfusion centers, preventive medicine centers and institutes, medical depots and the medical and pharmaceutical stores of such units. Medical units may be fixed or mobile, permanent or temporary;

(f)“Medical transportation” means the conveyance by land, water or air of the wounded, sick, shipwrecked, medical personnel, religious personnel, medical equipment or medical supplies protected by the Conventions and by this Protocol;

  1. “Medical transports” means any means of transportation, whether military or civilian, permanent or temporary, assigned exclusively to medical transportation and under the control of a competent authority of a party to the conflict;

  2. “Medical vehicles” means any medical transports by land;

  3. “Medical ships and craft” means any medical transports by water;

  4. “Medical aircraft” means any medical transports by air;

  5. “Permanent medical personnel”, “permanent medical units” and “permanent medical transports” means those assigned exclusively to medical purposes for indeterminate period. “Temporary medical personnel”, “temporary medical units” and “temporary medical transports” mean those devoted exclusively to medical purposes for limited periods. Unless otherwise specified, the terms “medical personnel”, “medical units” and “ medical transports cover both permanent and temporary categories;

  6. “Distinctive emblem” means a distinctive emblem of the read cross, red crescent or red lion and sun on a white ground when used for the protection of medical units and transports, or medical and religious personnel, equipment or supplies;

  7. “Distinctive signal” means any signal or message specified for the identification exclusively of medical units or transports in Chapter III of Annex I of this Protocol.

In the Al-Aqsa Intifada, Israeli occupation forces have attacked Palestinian medical personnel and transports, thus violating the rights of medical personnel to protection, security and safety while carrying out their humanitarian mission of saving the lives of Palestinian civilians. They have used force excessively against every person present in areas of clashes. Many medical and first-aid personnel have been targeted by Israeli forces. Seven Palestinian medical personnel have been killed and dozens have been wounded in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. The Israeli forces have also used artillery shells, heavy and medium machine guns, live ammunition, rubber-coated metal bullets, tear gas canisters and stun grenades against ambulances, hospitals and medical centers of the Palestinian Ministry of Health, Palestine Red Crescent Society, Military Medical Service, and other medical NGOs.

Violation of the Right to Life and Personal Security of Palestinian Medical Personnel

The rights to life, freedom and personal security are ensured by the international humanitarian law.

Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides:

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

Article 6 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights provides:

  1. Every human being has the inherent right to life. This right shall be protected by law. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.

Many physicians, nurses and ambulance officers were exposed to real danger while on duty. All the people in the areas of clashes, including medical personnel and journalists, were targeted by Israeli occupation forces and settlers. Palestinian medical personnel did not hesitate to offer medical help to the wounded despite the danger they faced. Israeli gunfire did not exclude Palestinian medical personnel and their vehicles despite the distinctive emblems they have. Some physicians, medics and nurses were victims of the Israeli gunfire. On 30 September 2000, Bassam El-Belbeissi, an ambulance driver, was killed by Israeli forces in Gaza City. On 29 September 2000, two members of the medical service of the Palestinian Marine Forces were killed in Nablus. On 15 November 2000 and 10 April 2001, two physicians were killed by Israeli rockets. On 20 and 23 December 2000, two members of the Palestinian Civil Defense were killed near Gaza.

The repetitive nature of attacks on Palestinian medical personnel by the Israeli forces proves that they are actually targeted by these forces. Following are the cases that were documented by PCHR’s field officers and by local and international human rights organizations in the period under study:

  1. Killing

On 30 Sepetember 2000, Bassam Fayez El-Belbeissi, 45, from Gaza, an ambulance driver of the Red Crescent Society in Deir El-Balah, went to Al-Shuhada’ junction, south of Gaza City to evacuate Palestinians civilians wounded by Israeli occupation forces at the junction. He was wearing a white suit that had the emblem of the Palestine Red Crescent Society. He evacuated some of the wounded to a field hospital around 300m away from the junction. When Israeli occupation forces opened fire on the child Mohammed El-Durrah and his father, an incident that was shown on television stations around the world, El-Belbeissi went in the ambulance to the junction to offer help to the two. According to eyewitnesses, El-Belbeissi received a lethal live bullet in the chest fired by Israeli occupation forces while he was on duty. A medic who was in the area drove the ambulance and evacuated El-Belbeissi to Shifa’ Hospital in Gaza, where he was pronounced dead.

On 30 September 2000, around 4,000 Palestinian civilians demonstrated in Nablus, protesting against the provocative visit by Ariel Sharon to Al-Haram Al-Sharif (the Holy Sanctuary). The demonstrators moved towards Joseph’s Tomb at the southern entrance of the city, despite attempts by around 300 Palestinian policemen to prevent their access to that area. Violent clashes erupted between the demonstrators and more than 100 Israeli soldiers who opened fire on the demonstrators indiscriminately. Five Palestinians, including two medics of the Palestinian Marine Forces, were killed:

  1. Amjad ‘Abdullah Dharaghma, 22, from Tubas, a medic of the Palestinian Marine Forces, killed by a live bullet in the chest;

  2. Mohammed Tawfiq El-Qalaq, 23, from Tulkarm, a medic of the Palestinian Marine Forces, killed by a live bullet in the chest;

  3. Khaled El-Bathayan, 16, from Nablus, killed by a live bullet in the head;

  4. Zakaria ‘Ersan El-Kilani, 22, from Sireis village near Nablus, killed by a live bullet in the chest; and

  5. Mahmoud Hani ‘Anbara, 24, resident of Jordan, killed by a live bullet in the head.

Dozens of demonstrators were also wounded. On the following day, 18-year-old Jihad Mahmoud El-‘Aaloul, from Nablus, was pronounced dead from a wound in the head by a live bullet in these clashes.

On 15 November 2000, Israeli occupation forces shelled residential neighborhoods in A’ida refugee camp near Bethlehem and in Beit Jala. As a result, a number of Palestinian civilians were wounded, and a German physician, Harry Fischer, 55, was hit with an artillery shell that killed him, while he was offering help to one of the wounded.

At approximately 09:00 on 20 December 2000, Israeli occupation forces opened fire on a truck of the Palestinian Civil Defense, which is responsible for firefighting and related duties, and has a distinctive emblem, traveling from Rafah towards Gaza City. Ref’at Faisal Abu Marzouq, 25, from Rafah, was killed by a live bullet in the head, and Nidal Hussein Abu ‘Oun, 30, also from Rafah, was critically wounded by a live bullet in the head. Abu ‘Oun was evacuated to Shifa’ Hospital in Gaza City, where he succumbed to his wound on 23 December 2000. In a testimony under oath to PCHR, an eyewitness said that a red transportation truck that had the distinctive emblem of the Palestinian Civil Defense was traveling across Salah El-Din Street, the main road between the north and south of the Gaza Strip, on its way from Rafah to Gaza City. Eight civil-uniformed members of the Civil Defense were in the back of the truck. When the truck arrived at Al-Shuhada’ junction, south of Gaza City, an Israeli convoy was there, consisting of a military jeep followed by an armored truck usually used to transport settlers. Then, another Israeli military jeep arrived at the junction coming from the east. When the Palestinian truck crossed the junction, one of the two Israeli military jeeps moved forward and stopped in the middle of the junction. Suddenly, an Israeli soldier emerged from a hatch at the top of the jeep, pointing his gun at the truck. He fired three live bullets from a distance of 30m. Then, he went back into the jeep and the convoy resumed its movement towards “Netzarim” settlement, west of the junction. The Civil Defense truck continued on its way, escaping from fire, and stopped approximately 500m away from the junction. It was discovered then that two of its passengers had been hit; one instantly died and the other was evacuated to Shifa’ Hospital in Gaza City.

According to eyewitness, the Israeli forces fired at the truck without any apparent reason. It was one of a series of incidents of shooting by the Israeli forces at Palestinian civilians and transportation on the roads and junctions under the control of these forces.

On 10 April 2001, two surface-to-surface missiles launched from inside Israeli territories east of the Gaza Strip were seen hitting a clinic in a site of the Palestinian Marine Police at the seashore of Beit Lahia. Wa’el Khweiter, 28, from Al-Zaytoun neighborhood in Gaza City, a physician of the Palestinian Military Medical Service, was killed after he got a wound in the abdomen and the chest. Additionally, Colonel Ghassan ‘Anabtawi, 50, from Al-Nasser neighborhood in Gaza City, of the Palestinian Military Medical Service, was wounded by shrapnel throughout the body, and his child ‘Obeida, 10, suffered from a nervous shock, as she had accompanied her father to the targeted site. PCHR’s field officer in the northern area of the Gaza Strip reported that the building of the clinic in the site, an ambulance of the Palestinian Military Medical Service and a civilian car were destroyed.

  1. Dozens of Wounded Palestinian Medical Personnel

Dozens of Palestinian medical personnel have been wounded by Israeli occupation forces. Although Palestinian medical personnel have followed all international instructions to make themselves distinct in the areas of clashes and they have never posed any threat to the lives of Israeli soldiers, those soldiers have targeted them, wounding some. Israeli forces have violated international law and international humanitarian law relevant to the protection of medical personnel. Israeli measures in this regard have also negatively affected people in need for medical care. PCHR has documented a number of cases in which Israeli forces targeted Palestinian medical personnel.

On 3 November 2000, Hassan was wounded in the right thigh by a tear gas canister fired by Israeli occupation forces while he was evacuating the wounded in clashes that erupted between Palestinian civilians and the Israeli forces near Al-Tuffah checkpoint, west of Khan Yunis.

  1. Tariq ‘Eissa ‘Aabed, 24, wounded by two rubber-coated metal bullets in the head and the achest;

  2. Ahlam Nabil Nasser, 24, wounded by a rubber-coated metal bullet in the left side;

  3. Nizar Far’oun, 21, wounded by a rubber-coated metal bullet in the right shoulder;

  4. Nader Fawzi ‘Aadel, 17, wounded by a rubber-coated metal bullet in the left thigh; and

  5. Hussam Hammouda, 18, wounded by a rubber-coated metal bullet in the left hand.

  1. Nasser Jamjoum, 32, wounded by a rubber-coated metal bullet in the mouth;

  2. ‘Arafat Zayed, 18, wounded by a rubber-coated metal bullet in the left foot;

  3. Riham Abu Jom’a, 18, wounded by a rubber-coated metal bullet in the left shoulder; and

  4. Rami Abu Dayeh, 20, wounded by a rubber-coated metal bullet in the head.

  1. Baschar Hashem, 22, from Ramallah, wounded with a rubber-coated metal bullet in the left thigh;

  2. ‘Arafat Zayed, 24, from Ramallah, wounded with a rubber-coated metal bullet in the right hand; and

  3. ‘Eissa Rawhi, 26, who fainted and suffered from breath difficulties due to tear gas inhalation.

  1. Ghassan Hamdan, 40, a physician from Nablus, wounded with a rubber-coated metal bullet in the right arm;

  2. ‘Ammar El-‘Assi, 26, from Nablus, wounded with a rubber-caoted metal bullet in the left foot;

  3. Mohammed Kalbouna, 24, from Nablus, wounded with two rubber-coated metal bullet in the shoulder and the left leg; and

  4. Suhad Hisham Shureim, 32, from Nablus, wounded with a rubber-coated metal bullet in the left thigh.

  1. Na’im Khaled Rashid Abu ‘Amer, 26, wounded with shrapnel in the right leg;

  2. ‘Awad ‘Obeid Abu Hadayed, 27, suffered from bruises in the right hand;

  3. Mohammed Khalil El-Qadhi, 22, suffered from bruises in the right ankle; and

  4. Haitham Abu Mo’eileq, m29, suffered from bruises.

  1. Sa’id El-Khattib, a paramedic, wounded with shrapnel in both feet;

  2. Ramzi El-Muhtasseb, a paramedic, wounded with shrapnel in both hands; and

  3. Lu’ai El-Sharif, a paramedic, wounded with shrapnel in both hands;

  1. Beating and Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment

Israeli occupation forces have attacked, and have encouraged attacks by settlers on Palestinian medical personnel despite the protection these forces must provide for medical personnel in accordance with international humanitarian law. No investigation has been initiated by Israeli occupation forces in any single case that involved beating and cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment of Palestinian medical personnel by these forces and settlers.

Shooting at Ambulances

Since the outbreak of Al-Aqsa Intifada, Israeli occupation forces have attacked Palestinian medical units and transports. These attacks have targeted permanent and temporary medical units in violation of the international humanitarian law. The Israeli forces have attacked field hospitals that have come to existence upon the outbreak of the Intifada. These hospitals have been clearly marked with the ICRC flags. Nevertheless, the Israeli forces have targeted these hospitals in violation of the Fourth Geneva Convention and annexed Protocol I.

Attacks on Medical Facilities by Israeli Occupation Forces

Palestinian medical facilities, including hospitals and clinics, have been attacked by Israeli occupation forces. These facilities have not been immune to shelling that targeted Palestinian residential areas. Settlers have also participated in these attacks.

 

Disastrous Impact of the Internal Siege on Medical Care

  1. Violation of the Right of Medical Units and Transports to Free Movement

International human rights law provides free movement for persons. Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides that “everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state….” Article 12 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights provides that “everyone… shall have the right to liberty of movement and freedom to choose his residence….” Medical personnel should have the right to freedom of movement to ensure the access patients and wounded to appropriate medical care. Article 23 of the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 provides:

Each High Contracting Party shall allow the free passage of all consignments of medical and hospital stores and objects necessary for religious worship intended only for civilians of another High Contracting Party, even if the latter is its adversary. It shall likewise permit the free passage of all consignments of essential foodstuffs, clothing and tonics intended for children under fifteen, expectant mothers and maternity cases…

During clashes, Israeli occupation forces have violated the right of Palestinian medical personnel to freedom of movement. They have obstructed the passage of many ambulances that have evacuated the wounded.

Palestinian patients lack appropriate medical care due to the lack of sufficient medical facilities in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. They used to go hospitals in Jerusalem, but under the current total siege imposed on the OPT, they have been denied access to those hospitals as Jerusalem has been isolated from the rest of the West Bank.

Abu ‘Arida was first evacuated to Al-Joneina hospital in Rafah, where he received first aid. Then, he was transferred by ambulance, accompanied by a physician, to Shifa’ hospital in Gaza City, but Israeli occupation forces positioned at two military roadblocks, to the south of Gaza City, obstructed the passage of the ambulance for more than five hours without any apparent reason, although Abu A’rida was in critical condition.

  1. Tamer El-Dayem, 12 years old, from Nusseirat refugee camp, wounded with a rubber-coated metal bullet in the head; and

  2. Ismail Hamdan, 16 years old, also from Nusseirat refugee camp, wounded with a live bullet in the left thigh.

PCHR’s field officer in Gaza City reported that Israeli forces, who had closed Salah El-Din Street at Al-Shuhada’ junction, prevented the evacuation of the two wounded children by an ambulance of the Palestine Red Crescent Society to Shifa’ hospital in Gaza City, so they were evacuated to a clinic in Deir El-Balah instead.

  1. Denial of the Entry of Medical Aid and Medicine into the OPT

Under the current total siege, Israeli occupation forces have denied the entry of medical supplies and ambulances donated by Arab and friend countries. The Palestinian National Authority was forced to put those medical supplies into stores in the Egyptian city of Al-‘Arish.

  1. Impact of the Internal Siege on the Evacuation of Patients to Hospital

PCHR has documented many incidents in which Israeli occupation forces at military roadblock denied the access of Palestinian patients to hospitals. As a result, some patients died and some pregnant women miscarried. Following are some of these cases:

Conclusion

Israeli occupation forces have continued to attack Palestinian medical personnel and ambulances. They have not initiated any investigations into any cases that involved attacks by Israeli soldiers and settlers against Palestinian medical personnel and facilities. A number of medical personnel have been killed and others have been wounded, while a number of medical centers have been shelled.

PCHR condemns the silence of the High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 in the face of gross violations perpetrated by Israeli occupation forces against Palestinian civilians in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. PCHR calls upon the international community to immediately intervene to put an end to such violations. PCHR particularly calls for:

  1. Taking immediate steps by the international community, through the UN Security Council, to put an end to grave violations perpetrated by Israeli occupation forces against Palestinian civilians, according to the conclusions and recommendations of the UN Human Rights Inquiry Commission, which was formed in accordance UN Security Council Resolution 1322.

  2. Convening a conference of the High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 to adopt concrete and practical measures to ensure Israel’s respects for the Convention in the OPT.

  3. Providing immediate international protection for the Palestinian people in the OPT.

  4. Activating Article 2 of the Euro-Israeli Association Agreement by the EU, which provides that Israel must respect the international human rights law and the international humanitarian law.

  5. Enhancing the presence of the ICRC, through expand its activities and intensify its field observations throughout the Occupied Palestinian Territories.

  6. Providing humanitarian and medical assistance for the Palestinian people, whose living conditions are continuing to deteriorate as a result of the continued siege imposed by the Israeli occupation forces on the entire OPT.

  7. Pressuring the international community by World Health Organization in order to put an end to Israeli violations against Palestinian medical personnel and facilities.

Medical Personnel Killed by Israeli Occupation Forces

29 September 2000 – 11 April 2001

 

No.

Name

Age

Place of Residence

Date of Death

Notes

1.

Bassam Fayez El-Bilbeissi

47

Al-Shojaeya, Gaza

30/9/00

A live bullet in the chest

2.

Amjad ‘Abdullah Dharaghma

22

Toubas

30/9/00

A live bullet in the chest

3.

Mohammed Tawfiq El-Qalaq

23

Tulkarm

30/9/00

A live bullet in the chest

4.

Marl Fischer

55

Beit Jala

15/11/00

An artillery shell

5.

Ref’at Faisal Abu Marzouq

25

Rafah

20/12/00

A live bullet in the head

6.

Nidal Hussein Abu ‘Oun

30

Rafah

23/12/00

A live bullet in the head on 20/12

7.

Wa’el Ahmed Khweiter

28

Gaza

10/4/01

Shrapnel from a surface-to-surface missile in the chest and the abdomen

 

 

Medical Personnel Injured by Israeli Occupation Forces

29 September 2000 – 11 April 2001

 

No.

Name

Age

Place of Residence

Date of Injury

Kind of Injury

1

Salem Ahmed

22

Khan Yunis

30/9/00

Shrapnel from live bullets in the hand

2

Wala’ Qudeih

20

Khan Yunis

30/9/00

Nervous shock

3

Marwan Hammouda

25

Jabalya

30/9/00

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the head

4

Hanadi El-Masri

21

Al-Zaytoun, Gaza

30/9/00

Nervous shock

5

Khaled Abu Zaida

21

Nusseirat

30/9/00

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the right shoulder

6

Yusri El-Masri

36

Beit Hanoun

30/9/00

Tear gas inhalation

7

Yousef ‘Abdel-Hamid

22

Jabalya

30/9/00

Tear gas inhalation

8

Hammam Jweihan

33

Jerusalem

30/9/00

A live bullet in the left foot

9

Mohammed El-Hawari

23

‘Azzoun, Qalqilya

1/10/00

A live bullet in the head

10

Rami Ka’ayba

24

Al-‘Ouja, Jericho

2/10/00

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the leg

11

Samir El-Najjar

22

‘Anabta, Tulkarm

2/10/00

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the leg

12

Ghassan Shu’eib

45

Qalqilya

2/10/00

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the leg

13

Yousef ‘Abdel-Hamid

22

Jabalya

2/10/00

Bruises in the back

14

Nahedh El-Shawa

44

Al-Tuffah, Gaza

2/10/00

Tear gas inhalation

15

Salem Ahmed

23

Khan Yunis

2/10/00

Shrapnel in the hands and the thigh

16

Dr. ‘Essam El-Sha’er

40

Gaza

2/10/00

Tear gas inhalation

17

Hassan Hassanein

22

Khan Yunis

2/10/00

Tear gas inhalation

18

Yasser ‘Aashour

27

Rafah

5/10/00

Nervous shock

19

Ayman Shahwan

24

Kahn Yunis

5/10/00

A live bullet

20

Haroun El-Rimawi

33

Beit Rima

6/10/00

A rubber-coated metal bullet

21

Mohammed El-Ja’bari

34

Hebron

6/10/00

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the face

22

Mohammed Mar’ei

33

Jenin

6/10/00

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the thigh

23

‘Ezzat ‘Abboushi

32

Jenin

6/10/00

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the hand

24

‘Emad ‘Ali

30

Nusseirat

6/10/00

Tear gas inhalation

25

Shaher ‘Abdullah

41

Al-Bireh

10/10/00

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the hand

26

Ra’ed Hijazi

27

Jericho

16/10/00

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the foot

27

Nassim Hassan

23

Khan Yunis

16/10 and 3/11/00

Two rubber-coated metal bullets in the back and the thigh and tear gas inhalation

28

Riadh El-‘Aaidi

--

Khan Yunis

16/10/00

Tear gas inhalation

29

Sulieman El-Shawaf

--

Khan Yunis

16/10/00

Tear gas inhalation

30

Mohammed El-Danaf

47

Deir El-Balah

18/10/00

A live bullet in the left leg

31

‘Arafa ‘Abdel-Dayem

--

Khan Yunis

20/10/00

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the right hand

32

Jamil Subeh

--

Rafah

20/10/00

Tear gas inhalation

33

Hussein Abu Rezeq

22

Khan Yunis

21/10/00

Two rubber-coated metal bullets in the right hand and thigh

34

Jamal Qudeih

--

Beit Jala

23/10/00

Shrapnel from an artillery shell in the feet

35

Dr. Maher Suleiman

--

Beit Jala

23/10/00

Shrapnel from an artillery shell in the right leg

36

Mohammed ‘Ali

--

Al-Bireh

29/10/00

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the right hand

37

Mousa Harazallah

36

Jerusalem

29/10/00

A live bullet in the arm

38

Anwar Ismail

--

Khan Yunis

31/10/00

Tear gas inhalation

39

Ghassan ‘Abdel-Jawad

--

Khan Yunis

3/11/00

Tear gas inhalation

40

Salem Abu Teilakh

--

Khan Yunis

4/11/00

Tear gas inhalation

41

Mohammed Abu Hatab

--

Khan Yunis

9/11/00

Tear gas inhalation

42

Khamis Tabaza

--

Khan Yunis

9/11/00

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the left leg

43

Dr. Nidal Salameh

--

Beit Sahour

11/11/00

Shrapnel from an artillery shell

44

Samer ‘Ali

--

Beit Sahour

11/11/00

Shrapnel from an artillery shell

45

‘Adnan Humeid

--

Beit Sahour

11/11/00

Shrapnel from an artillery shell

46

Sami Abu Farha

--

Beit Jala

12/11/00

Burns

47

Subhi Jadallah

--

Khan Yunis

12/11/00

Tear gas inhalation

48

Rasmi Jarghoun

--

Khan Yunis

14/11/00

Tear gas inhalation

49

Sami Abu Namous

29

Khan Yunis

25/11/00

Shrapnel from an artillery shell in the head, the back and the limbs

50

‘Awni El-Agha

47

Khan Yunis

25/11/00

Shrapnel from an artillery shell throughout the body

51

Fayez Nabhan

52

Khan Yunis

13/12/00

Shrapnel from an artillery shell in the head

52

Ibrahim Abu Settah

48

Khan Yunis

13/12/00

Shrapnel from an artillery shell in the right knee

53

Jihad Abu ‘Ataya

44

Khan Yunis

13/12/00

A live bullet in the chest

54

Jihad Salim

33

Khan Yunis

13/12/00

Shrapnel from a live bullet in the neck

55

Khader Fayadh

40

Khan Yunis

13/12/00

Shrapnel from a live bullet in the right leg

56

Ibrahim Shabat

--

Beit Hanoun

31/12/00

An explosive live bullet in the left thigh

57

Lu’ai Raddad

--

Ramallah

22/1 and 19/3/01

Beating

58

Naji El-Barghouthi

--

Ramallah

25/1/01

Beating

59

Talal Abu ‘Eida

--

Ramallah

25/1/01

Beating

60

Tariq ‘Aabed

24

Ramallah

23/2/01

Two rubber-coated metal bullets in the head and the chest

61

Ahlam Nasser

24

Ramallah

23/2/01

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the side

62

Nizar Far’oun

21

Ramallah

23/2/01

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the right shoulder

63

Nadi ‘Aadel

17

Ramallah

23/2/01

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the right thigh

64

Hussam Hammouda

18

Ramallah

23/2/01

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the left hand

65

Nasser Jamjoum

32

Ramallah

2/3/01

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the mouth

66

‘Arafat Zayed

18

Ramallah

2 and 23/ 3/01

Two rubber-coated metal bullets in the left foot and the right hand

67

Riham Abu Jom’a

18

Ramallah

2/3/01

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the left shoulder

68

Rami Abu Dayeh

20

Ramallah

2/3/01

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the head

69

Ahmed ‘Arar

--

Ramallah

12/3/01

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the left eye

70

Mohammed ‘Awadh

--

Ramallah

19/3/01

Beating

71

Ahmed Ramadan

--

Ramallah

19/3/01

Beating

72

Bashar Hashem

22

Ramallah

23/3/01

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the left thigh

73

‘Eissa Rawhi

26

Ramallah

23/3/01

Tear gas inhalation

74

Dr. Ghassan Hamdan

40

Nablus

25/3/01

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the right arm

75

‘Ammar El-‘Aassi

26

Nablus

25/3/01

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the left foot

76

Mohammed Kalbouna

24

Nablus

25/3/01

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the left shoulder and leg

77

Suhad Hisham Shureim

32

Nablus

25/3/01

A rubber-coated metal bullet in the left thigh

78

Na’im Abu ‘Aamer

26

Khan Yunis

10/4/01

Shrapnel in the right leg

79

‘Awad Hadayed

27

Khan Yunis

10/4/01

Bruises in the right hand

80

Mohammed El-Qadhi

22

Khan Yunis

10/4/01

Bruises in the right ankle

81

Haitham Abu Mu’eiliq

29

Khan Yunis

10/4/01

Bruises

82

Ghassan ‘Anabtawi

50

Gaza

10/4/01

Shrapnel from a surface-to-surface missile in the head

83

Sa’id El-Khatib

--

Hebron

11/4/01

Shrapnel in the feet

84

Ramzi El-Muhtasseb

--

Hebron

11/4/01

Shrapnel in the hands

85

Lu’ai El-Sharif

--

Hebron

11/4/01

Shrapnel in the hands