Published on October 22, 2001

 

CLOSURE UPDATE NO. 40

A Report by the Palestinian Centre for Human Rights on the Closure Imposed by Israel on the Gaza Strip

 

This is the 40th special update in a series published by the Palestinian Centre for Human Rights on the total closure imposed by the Israeli occupation forces on the Gaza Strip. The series documents the impacts of the closure on economic and social conditions in the Gaza Strip. This update coincides with the first anniversary of the outbreak of the Al-Aqsa Intifada.

This report covers the period from September 14-October 20, 2001. In this period, the Israeli occupation forces maintained a total siege on the Occupied Palestinian Territories. The siege had included the closure of all border crossings and frequent halting of exports and imports from and into the OPT. Under partial closures, the Israeli occupation forces allowed the movement of some goods under strict conditions.

Furthermore, the Israeli occupation forces denied the access of Palestinian laborers to their work places inside Israel. They repeatedly closed Rafah Border Crossing, prohibiting travel abroad. They have maintained a closure of Gaza International Airport since February 14. In addition, the Israeli occupation forces had closed the “Safe Passage” linking the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.

On another level, the Israeli occupation forces maintained a marine siege on the Gaza Strip, prohibiting fishing in the Mediterranean, and conducted raids against Palestinian fishermen and their boats.

Within the OPT, the Israeli occupation forces restricted internal movement within the Gaza Strip and reinforced their presence at main junctions. They had also repeatedly isolated the south of the strip from its north by closing Salah El-Din Street, the main road between the north and south.

The right to free movement is a basic human right that must be ensured for all persons. The policy of closure is a form of collective punishment prohibited by international humanitarian law and international law. It also violates the Interim Agreements signed between the PLO and the Israeli government, which emphasize the territorial contiguity of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip and ensure save passage between the two areas through four routes.

The policy of closure has had a disastrous impact on economic, social and cultural conditions in the OPT, and constitutes a violation of Palestinian human rights. In this update, PCHR reports on the latest impacts of the total siege imposed on the OPT on the economic, social and cultural conditions in the Gaza Strip.

  1. Continued Closure of Crossings

The Israeli occupation forces maintained a total siege on the Gaza Strip. They closed most border crossings and outlets and imposed complicated, cumbersome procedures at Al-Mentar (Karni) and Sofa Crossings, causing further deterioration to Palestinian economic activities.

  1. Continued Closure of Al-Mentar (Karni) Crossing

    On Monday, September 17, the Israeli occupation forces closed Al-Mentar Crossing on the occasion of the new Hebrew year and reopened it on Wednesday, September 19. However, they re-closed it on Monday, September 20, in the aftermath of a military attack near the crossing. The crossing was partially reopened on Monday, September 24, allowing the entry of foodstuffs and clothes while denying the entry of other goods, especially construction and industrial raw materials.

    On Monday, October 3, Israeli occupation forces denied the entry of 200 trucks loaded with aggregate into the Gaza Strip, although they had claimed that they would ease restrictions at crossing and roadblocks. These measures led to a daily loss of approximately 15,000 NIS (approximately US$ 3,500). They also caused a complete halt of all construction activities in the Gaza Strip.

    Al-Mentar (Karni) Outlet, one of the major commercial crossings of the Gaza Strip, has been frequently closed by Israeli occupation authorities since the outbreak of the Al-Aqsa Intifada. Under the closures, the entry of goods, especially construction raw materials, has been obstructed.

    The crossing had operated under complicated procedures since the Israeli occupation forces had reopened it on October 2. The Israeli occupation authorities had already abandoned the “Levoi” system, under which Palestinian trucks would cross Beit Hanoun (Erez) Crossing in convoys accompanied by Israeli security forces. All commercial movement was shifted to Al-Mentar (Karni) Crossing. In March 2001, the average number of trucks that crossed the crossing was 300 trucks daily, 180-200 of which transported imported goods. Before the Intifada, 450 trucks used to cross the crossing, and another 120 used to cross Beit Hanoun (Erez) Crossing. Working days at the crossing have increased to 6 days a week, from 08:00 to 19:00 local time. On Wednesday, June 25, the Israeli occupation forces had closed the outlet for 6 hours, claiming that they discovered attempts to smuggle weapons in a truck into the Gaza Strip.

    Presently, the transport of goods at Al-Mentar (Karni) Crossing involves the transfer of goods from Palestinian trucks to Israeli ones under strict security surveillance. The transfer costs an estimated 350 NIS (approximately US$85) per truck. Moreover, Israeli occupation forces often close the crossing for several hours and sometimes for the entire day. Consequently, some goods, such as vegetables, flowers, strawberries and other foodstuffs, often rot.

    Under these obstacles, Palestinian economic sectors, especially agriculture and industry, have further deteriorated.

  2. Continued Closure of Sofa Crossing

    The Israeli occupation authorities had closed Sofa Crossing, northeast of Rafah, prohibiting the access of approximately 1,200 Palestinian laborers to their work places in Israel. As a result of closing the crossing, the entry of construction raw materials into the Gaza Strip completely stopped. The Israeli occupation authorities had allowed the entry of aggregate and base course on Friday, March 16, under unfavorable conditions which resulted in an increase of the price of one ton of aggregate from 35 NIS (approximately US$ 8.50) to 85 NIS (approximately US$ 21). They allowed the entry of 2,500 tons of aggregate instead of 9,000. Consequently, construction in the Gaza Strip was significantly set back, and many concrete processing facilities stopped operation. In addition, some projects administered by municipalities and other institutions were halted.

  3. Continued Closure of Gaza International Airport and Rafah Border Crossing for Commercial Transactions

    The Israeli occupation forces have continued the closure of Gaza International Airport since Wednesday, February 14. They also prohibited commercial transactions from and into the Gaza Strip through Rafah Border Crossing since June 2. Much of the medical and food assistance offered to the Palestinian National Authority, as well as Palestinian goods, has been blocked by Israeli occupation authorities at the crossing.

  4. Continued Closure of Beit Hanoun (Erez) Crossing

On June 2, the Israeli occupation forces sustained the closure of Beit Hanoun (Erez) Crossing. The Israeli occupation forces had kept the crossing closed since October 8, 2000, thus denying entry of approximately 120 Palestinian trucks. Consequently, Palestinian traders have suffered large losses as their goods were blocked in Israeli harbors.

It is worth mentioning that the average number of days of total closure of crossings in the Gaza Strip in the first year of the Intifada is approximately 197.8, approximately 54.2% of the year, while the number of days of partial closure is approximately 162, approximately 45% of the year.

The following table shows the number of days of total and partial closure of each crossing in the Gaza Strip:

The Crossing

Days of Total Closure

Days of Partial Closure

Gaza International Airport

288

72

Rafah Border Crossing

114

246

Sofa Crossing

276

84

Al-Mentar Crossing

30

330

Erez Crossing

281

79

Average days of closure

197.8 – 54.2% of the year

162.2 – 44.4% of the year

  1. Impacts of the Closure on the Palestinian Economy

Israeli measures and frequent closures had severely damaged agriculture in the Gaza Strip, since export of agricultural products to the West Bank and neighboring Arab countries, especially tomatoes and cucumbers and guavas, had been halted. The Palestinian Ministry of Agriculture estimated losses of the Palestinian agriculture until to the end of September 2001 at US$ 246 million.

The impacts of closure on Palestinian agriculture can be attributed to the following:

  1. Palestinian farmers face difficulties in reaching their farms at demarcation points.

  2. Exportation of vegetables and fruits has been halted.

  3. The entry of basic materials necessary for agriculture has been denied.

Under the current total siege that has been imposed on the OPT for more than ten months, the Palestinian industrial sector is further deteriorating, since more than 90% of industrial raw materials are exported from foreign countries through Israeli harbors, and the Israeli occupation authorities have obstructed the clearance of these materials from harbors, apparently to cause further damage to the Palestinian industrial sector. Moreover, Palestinian laborers have not been able to reach their work places in Palestinian factories due to the internal siege. As a result, sales and exports of Palestinian industrial products have sharply decreased.

According to a report by the Palestinian Ministry of Industry, the Israeli occupation authorities have blocked approximately 2,800 containers of goods and raw materials in Israeli harbors. Palestinian importers have to pay delay fines to harbor authorities. After Palestinian trucks had been denied movement, Palestinian importers resorted to Israeli ones, which cost them much more, as they have to pay US$ 200 for each truck.

According to the same report, the Palestinian industrial production decreased by 77.43% between September 28 and December 12, 2000, and decreased by 50.46% between December 13, 2000 and July 15, 2001. The following table illustrates these percentages distributed in kinds of industry:

Kind of industry

Contribution to industrial production before the Intifada

Percentage of decrease in industrial production from December 13, 2000 to July 15, 2001

Percentage of decrease in contribution to industrial production from December 13, 2000 to July 15, 2001

Percentage of decrease in industrial production from July 16 to August 31, 2001

Percentage of decrease in contribution to industrial production from July 16 to August 31, 2001

Building materials

31.6%

70%

22.12%

87.5%

27.65%

Food

20.3%

20%

4.06%

25%

5.07

Ready-to-wear clothes

11.8%

55%

6.49

86.75%

8.11

Shoes and leather products

6.5%

60%

3.9%

75%

4.87%

Chemical industries

3.2%

20

0.64%

25%

0.80%

Furniture

9.5%

40%

3.8%

50%

4.75%

Mechanic industries

9%

60%

5.4%

75%

6.75%

Plastic industries

4.5%

50%

2.25%

62.5%

2.81%

Paper industries

3.6%

50%

1.8%

62.5

2.25%

Total

100%

 

50.46%

 

63.06%

Source: the Palestinian Ministry of Industry.

According to a report by the Palestinian Economic Council for Development and Reconstruction (PECDAR), the loss of the Palestinian industrial sector up to September 2001 is approximately US$ 556 million.

Due to instability in security conditions and continued attacks on Palestinian tourist establishments, Palestinian tourism had suffered large losses in the Intifada. Many hotels, restaurants and tourist places had closed their doors and thousands of laborers had lost their jobs. Losses of tourism in the Intifada up to September 2001 were estimated at US$ 497 million.

Under the closure of border crossings and the restrictions imposed on internal movement in the OPT, Palestinian commerce had suffered large losses estimated at approximately US$ 410 million up to September 2001.

Investment in Palestine had significantly decreased due to instability from continued Israeli attacks on the Palestinian areas. Movement of foreign investors due to continued closure of Gaza International Airport played a major role in decreasing investment in Palestine. Losses of this sector up to September 2001 were estimated at US$ 196 million.

The Israeli occupation forces had denied the entry of construction raw materials, such as cement, aggregate, wood, etc., into the OPT. Consequently, construction had been obstructed and thousands of laborers lost their jobs. Losses of this sector up to September 2001 were estimated at US$ 327 million.

The Palestinian transportation sector suffered large losses due to restrictions imposed on internal and external movement. Thousands of taxis and trucks stopped working. Israeli forces also destroyed many roads. Losses of this sector up to September 2001 were estimated at approximately US$ 190 million.

As a result of continued attacks and violations by the Israeli occupation forces against the Palestinian people, the Palestinian National Authority had to endure additional expenses, especially in the fields of health, education and social insurance. These expenses were estimated at approximately US$ 330 million up to September 2001.

On Wednesday, September 19, the Palestinian Ministry of Labor received 202 work permits for laborers from the Gaza Strip to work in the Israeli agricultural sector. On Sunday, September 23, only 60 of those laborers were able to reach their work places in Israel.

From March 27 to May 17, the Israeli occupation authorities issued 5,935 work permits to Palestinian laborers. In December 2000, the Israeli occupation forces had issued 5,600 work permits for Palestinian laborers under the following conditions:

The following table shows the number of Palestinian laborers who had permits to work in Israel in each month of the years 2000 and 2001:

 

Month

2000

2001

January

24,958

Nil

February

24,903

4,000

March

24.302

743

April

23,981

816

May

23,981

Nil

June

23,867

Nil

July

23,976

Nil

August

24,104

Nil

September

24,370

202

October

Nil

---

November

Nil

---

December

5,600

---

Thousands of Palestinian laborers working inside the Gaza Strip were not able to reach their work places, so many factories and workshops were closed.

The Palestinian economy largely depends on the income of laborers. The average daily income of a laborer is US$ 27.50. Thus, the total daily loss of organized labor in Israel is approximately US$ 660,000. If the losses of non-organized laborers, of those working at Erez industrial zone and of laborers working in local factories and workshops is summed, then the total daily losses of Palestinian labor will be approximately US$ 3.5 million. The total loss resulted by the denial of the access of laborers to their work places is estimated at US$ 1.092 billion.

Losses of the Palestinian economy were not limited to the aforementioned sectors, but also included losses resulting from the destruction of national resources, which were estimated at approximately US$ 263 million. Losses resulted by the blocking of Palestinian tax revenues by Israel were estimated at US$ 250 million.

The total loss of the Palestinian economy under the current total closure and as a result of continued attacks on the Palestinian people and property is estimated at US$ 5.288 billion, according to the Palestinian Economic Council for Development and Reconstruction (PECDAR). The following table illustrates the total loss of the Palestinian economy distributed among various sector from September 2000 to September 2001:

Kind of Loss

The Number in Millions

Losses resulting from stagnation in production sectors

2,861

Losses resulting from suspension of outside agreements, such as aid and labor

1,385

Losses resulting from the destruction of national resources

263

Losses of investment

196

Losses resulting from additional fiscal drags

333

Lost tax revenues

250

Total

5,288

Since the outbreak of the Al-Aqsa Intifada, Israeli occupation forces have restricted the movement of Palestinian fishermen. The Israeli forces have fired at Palestinian fishermen, have arrested many of them and have destroyed their nets and boats.

  1. Continued Restrictions on Travel

Israeli occupation authorities continued to restrict the movement of Gazans through Rafah Border Crossing between the Gaza Strip and Egypt. The crossing was repeatedly closed during Al-Aqsa Intifada. On Thursday, September 20, Israeli occupation forces reopened the crossing, which had been closed since September 11. Palestinian travelers were able to cross the border, but with the absence of Palestinian personnel. The crossing is operated for limited hours a day.

On Wednesday, September 26, the Israeli forces closed the crossing and reopened it on Sunday, September 30. Palestinian personnel working at the crossing were denied entry into the crossing area.

The Interim Agreements between the PLO and the Israeli government gave control over the crossings and outlets of the Gaza Strip to Israeli forces. These forces have repeatedly closed Rafah Border Crossing since the outbreak of Al-Aqsa Intifada. According to PCHR’s documentation, the Israeli forces closed the crossing 114 times completely and 246 partially between October 8, 2000 and September 30, 2001.

The Israeli occupation forces have continued to close Salah El-Din Street (the main road between the north and south of the Gaza Strip) and all alternative roads. Israeli roadblocks between and inside Palestinian areas have obstructed movement of people in the Gaza Strip.

Palestinian employees from the southern Gaza Strip complain of Israeli measures at military roadblocks which obstruct their travel to Gaza City. Traveling between Rafah and Gaza City now takes more than two hours (as opposed to half an hour without roadblocks), so those employees arrive at their institutions very late. This has negative impacts on social, educational and medical services offered to citizens by these institutions.

Continued Siege on Al-Mawasi Area in Rafah and Khan Yunis

The Israeli occupation forces have continued to impose a strict siege on Al-Mawasi area since October 2000. Palestinians living in the area have suffered from Israeli measures that restrict their movement, the entry of foodstuffs into the area and access to schools and farms.

Israeli forces and settlers escalated their attacks against residents of the area in Khan Yunis. On Wednesday, September 26, settlers from “Tal Ridan” settlement, under the full protection of Israeli forces, uprooted dozens of trees in Al-Mawasi area in Khan Yunis. They also destroyed water pumps and irrigation networks. Israeli forces razed large areas of Palestinian agricultural land near the settlement, establishing a buffer zone between the settlement and Palestinian areas.

Palestinian farmers in the area have been subject to abuses by the Israeli forces, which have restricted their access to their farms.

On Saturday, October 20, Israeli forces closed Al-Mawasi area in Rafah, prohibiting movement of its residents inside and outside.

Recently, the Israeli forces have introduced a system of numbering, which includes giving each Palestinian living in the area a special number added to his or her identity card. Any Palestinian who does not have this number is denied access to the area.

Strict Siege on Al-Syafa Area (the New Al-Mawasi)

The Israeli occupation forces have maintained a total siege on the area since June 22. On Wednesday, September 26, the Israeli forces closed Al-Sayafa area between “Dogit” and “Elli Sinai” settlements, north of Beit Lahia, on the occasion of the Jewish Day of Atonement. Under this closure, Israeli soldiers prohibited any movement of Palestinians from and into the area.

On Tuesday, October 2, Israeli forces escalated their attacks on the area. They razed approximately 1,300 donums of Palestinian agricultural land and destroyed crops, irrigation networks, greenhouses and other agricultural facilities.

On Wednesday, June 27, the Israeli occupation forces finished surrounding the area with sand barricades, approximately 2.5 high, above which barbed wires 0.5m high were placed. All entrances to the area where closed, isolating it from its surroundings. In the meanwhile, the Israeli occupation forces established an electronic gate northwest of “Dogit” settlement, apparently to be the sole entrance to the area, in a way similar to procedures applied in Al-Mawasi area in Khan Yunis and Rafah. They also established observation towers near the two settlements.

On July 8, residents of the area were allowed to move under strict procedures and for a limited period. Residents of the area are checked at the electronic gate. Cars are denied entry into the area and people have to move on foot.

  1. Denial of the Right of Education

    Israeli occupation forces continued to violate the right to education under the current siege imposed on the Gaza Strip. Military roadblocks of the Israeli occupation forces posed dangerous threats to the security and safety of Palestinian university students. Approximately 50% of university students and 60% of university employees are from the southern Gaza Strip, while most universities are in Gaza City. Those students were often unable to reach their universities under such conditions. Israeli measures also coincided with midterm exams at universities. Also, Gazan students studying at universities in the West Bank have been deprived of the right to visit their families in the Strip.

  2. Denial of the Right of Free Worship

    Palestinians have been denied access to the holy sites in Jerusalem and Bethlehem. Only people over 40 from Jerusalem have been allowed access to the Holy Sanctuary, while Palestinians from the West Bank and the Gaza Strip have been completely denied access to this Muslim holy site.

  3. Continued Prevention of Visitation of Palestinian Prisoners

Palestinian prisoners in Israeli jails have been deprived family visits as a consequence of the total siege imposed on the Occupied Palestinian Territories. This has a negative psychological effect on the prisoners, exacerbating hard and inhuman conditions of detention.

There are approximately 2,250 Palestinian prisoners in Israeli jails, 300 from Gaza, 1,625 from the West Bank, 300 from Palestinian areas inside Israel and 25 from Arab countries.

Conclusion

The Israeli occupation forces have continued to impose a total siege on the occupied Palestinian territories. Under the siege, the suffering of the Palestinian people continues. The Gaza Strip has been transformed into a series of jails. Living conditions in the occupied Palestinian territories have deteriorated on all levels, and the economic, social and cultural rights of Palestinians have been violated.

The policy of collective punishment adopted by the Israeli occupation forces against the Palestinian people is internationally prohibited, and it contradicts internationally accepted human rights standards and international humanitarian law.

PCHR calls for a lifting of the total siege imposed on the occupied Palestinian territories and an end to the policy of harsh restrictions adopted by the Israeli occupation forces against the Palestinian people.

The current situation in the occupied Palestinian territories is the most serious it has been since they were occupied by the Israeli occupation forces on June 5, 1967. PCHR calls upon the international community to :

  1. Pressure Israel to lift the siege imposed on the Gaza Strip, and to stop its aggression against the Palestinian people and their property.

  2. Provide immediate medical and humanitarian assistance for the Palestinian people whose living conditions have been increasingly deteriorating under the siege.

  3. Activate mechanisms of immediate intervention by the UN and its agencies, and ICRC, to ensure the access of medical and food assistance to the occupied Palestinian territories under the siege.

  4. Oblige Israel to respect international conventions and to comply with the UN Resolutions, especially 242 and 338, which call for a complete Israeli withdrawal from the occupied Palestinian territories in 1967.

  5. Take effective steps by the EU, under Article 2 of the Euro-Israel Association Agreement, which provides that Israel must respect human rights.

  6. Prosecute Israeli leaders for war crimes commited against the Palestinian people.

“End”

 

Annex (1)

A table that shows closures of crossings during Al-Aqsa Intifada

Crossing

Closure

Partial Reopening

Al-Mentar (Karni)

Closed on September 29, 2000

Re-closed on October 8, 2000

Re-closed on November 14, 2000

Re-closed on January 1, 2001

Re-closed in the morning of January 14, 2001

Re-closed on January 15, 2001

Re-closed on June 2, 2001

Re-closed on September 11, 2001

Reopened on October 2, 2000

Reopened on October 10, 2000

Reopened on November 19, 2000

Partially reopened January 7, 2001

Partially reopened in the evening of January 14, 2001

Partially reopened on January 17, 2001

Partially reopened on June 6, 2001

Partially reopened on September 28, 2001

Sofa

Closed on October 8, 2000

Re-closed on January 18, 2001

Re-closed on February 15, 2001

Re-closed on June 2, 2001

Reopened on January 17, 2001

Reopened for laborers only on February 12, 2001

Reopened on March 16, 2001

Reopened for laborers on May 24, 2001

Beit Hanoun (Erez)

Closed on October 8, 2000

 

Re-closed on January 1, 2001

Re-closed on February 4, 2001

Re-closed on February 15, 2001

Re-closed on April 17, 2001

Completely re-closed on June 2, 2001

Partially reopened on December 14, 2000, allowing the entry of a limited number of Palestinian laborers

Partially reopened for laborers on January 22, 2001

Partially reopened for laborers on February 7, 2001

Partially reopened for laborers on March 27, 2001

Rafah Border Crossing

Closed on October 8, 2000

Re-closed on October 12, 2000

Re-closed on October 16, 2000

Re-closed on November 8, 2000

 

Re-closed on December 11, 2000, from 10:00 to 12:00 local time

Re-closed on December 18, 2000

Re-closed on December 30, 2000

Re-closed on January 14, 2001

Re-closed on January 24, 2001

Re-closed on January 31, 2001

Re-closed on February 5, 2001

Re-closed on March 18, 2001

Re-closed on April 25, 2001

Re-closed in the face of traders on May 27, 2001

Re-closed completely on June 2, 2001

Re-closed on July 13, 2001

Re-closed on September 12, 2001

Re-closed on September 26, 2001

Reopened on October 10, 2000, with reduced staff

Reopened on October 15, 2000

Reopened on October 19, 2000

Partially reopened on November 20, 2000, and was re-closed on the same day

Partially reopened on December 4, 2000

 

Reopened on December 19, 2000

Reopened on January 11, 2001

Reopened on January 17, 2001

Partially reopened on January 25, 2001

Reopened on February 1, 2001

Reopened only for pilgrims on February 13, 2001

Reopened for returnees on February 20, 2001

Partially reopened on March 24, 2001

Reopened on April 25, 2001

 

Partially reopened on June 16, 2001

Partially reopened on July 19, 2001

Partially reopened on September 20, 2001

Partially reopened on September 30, 2001

Gaza International Airport

Closed on October 8, 2000

Re-closed on October 29, 2000

Re-closed on November 8, 2000

Re-closed on January 1, 2001

Re-closed on January 15, 2001

Re-closed on January 31, 2001

Re-closed on February 5, 2001

Re-closed on February 14, 2001

Reopened on October 15, 2000

Reopened on November 6, 2000

Partially reopened on December 1, 2000

Partially reopened on January 12, 2001

Partially reopened on January 18, 2001

Reopened on February 1, 2001

Reopened only for pilgrims on February 13, 2001

 

 

“1) All people have the right of self determination. By virtue of this right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.

“2) All peoples may, for their own ends, freely dispose of their natural wealth and resources without prejudice to any obligations arising out of international economic co-operation, based upon the principle of mutual benefit, and international law. In no case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence.”

Article 1, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1996)

“No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.”

Article 17, Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

“1) Everyone lawfully within the territory of a State shall, within that territory, have the right to liberty of movement and freedom to choose his residence.

“2) Everyone shall be free to leave any country, including his own.”

Article 12, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966)

“No protected person may be punished for an offence he or she has not personally committed. Collective penalties and likewise all measures of intimidation or of terrorism are prohibited. Pillage is prohibited. Reprisals against protected persons and their property are prohibited.”

Article 33, the Fourth Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (1949)

“Each High Contracting Party shall allow the free passage of all consignments of medical and hospital stores and objects necessary for religious worship intended only for civilians of another High Contracting Party, even if the latter is its adversary. It shall likewise permit the free passage of all consignments of essential foodstuffs, clothing and tonics intended for children under fifteen, expectant mothers and maternity cases.”

Article 23, the Fourth Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (1949)

“1) The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right to work, which includes the right of every one to the opportunity to gain his living by work which he freely chooses or accepts, and will take appropriate steps to safeguard this right.”

Article 6, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966)

“1) The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health.

“2) The steps to be taken by the States Parties to the present Covenant to achieve the full realization of this right shall include: …

d- the creation of conditions which could assure to all medical service and medical attention in the event of sickness.”

Article 12, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966)

“1) The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to education. They agree that education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and the sense of its dignity, and shall strengthen the respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.”

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966)