Published on December 3, 2000

 

  

 

CLOSURE UPDATE NO. 28

 

A Report by the Palestinian Centre for Human Rights on the Closure Imposed by Israel on the Gaza Strip

 

  

The Impact of Total Closure on the Gaza Strip


 

1) All peoples have the right of self-determination.  By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development. 

2) All peoples may, for their own ends, freely dispose of their natural wealth and resources without prejudice to any obligations arising out of international economic co-operation, based upon the principle of mutual benefit, and international law.  In no case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence.

Article 1, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1996)

 

No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

Article 17, Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

 

1) Everyone lawfully within the territory of a State shall, within that territory, have the right to liberty of movement and freedom to choose his residence.

2) Everyone shall be free to leave any country, including his own.

Article 12, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966)

 

No protected person may be punished for an offence he or she has not personally committed.  Collective penalties and likewise all measures of intimidation or of terrorism are prohibited.  Pillage is prohibited.  Reprisals against protected persons and their property are prohibited.

Article 33, the Fourth Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (1949)

 

Each High Contracting Party shall allow the free passage of all consignments of medical and hospital stores and objects necessary for religious worship intended only for civilians of another High Contracting Party, even if the latter is its adversary.  It shall likewise permit the free passage of all consignments of essential foodstuffs, clothing and tonics intended for children under fifteen, expectant mothers and maternity cases.

Article 23, the Fourth Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (1949)

 

1) The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right to work, which includes the right of every one to the opportunity to gain his living by work which he freely chooses or accepts, and will take appropriate steps to safeguard this right.

Article 6, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966)

 

1) The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health.

2) The steps to be taken by the States Parties to the present Covenant to achieve the full realization of this right shall include: …

d- the creation of conditions which could assure to all medical service and          medical attention in the event of sickness.

Article 12, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966)

 

1) The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to education.  They agree that education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and the sense of its dignity, and shall strengthen the respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.           

Article 13, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966)
The Impact of Total Closure on the Gaza Strip

         

This is the 28th special update in a series published by the Palestinian Centre for Human Rights on the total closure imposed by the Israeli occupation forces on the Gaza Strip.  The Israeli occupation authorities have continued to impose a total siege on the occupied Palestinian territories for the third consecutive month, since September 29, 2000.  The latest information gathered by PCHR refutes the claims of the Israeli occupation authorities regarding their easing of the siege.  These authorities have allowed the entry of some foodstuffs under strict measures and in limited amounts; however, they have continued to impose restrictions on the free movement of goods from and into the Gaza Strip.  In addition, they have continued to impose strict measures limiting free movement between the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, and between the Gaza Strip and Israel as well as the outside world.  Under such circumstances, more than 24,000 laborers from the Gaza Strip have been denied access to their work places inside the Green Line.  Hundreds of Gazan students at the universities of the West Bank have been deprived of their right to education. In addition, families have been prevented from visiting their sons detained in the Israeli jails.  Hundreds of patients from the Gaza Strip have been deprived of their right to receive suitable treatment outside the Gaza Strip.  Furthermore, since November 20, 2000, citizens of the Gaza Strip have lacked free movement between the north and south of the Gaza Strip, and between Palestinian cities because the Israeli occupation forces have closed Salah El-Din Street, separating the north of the Gaza Strip from its south.  As a result, citizens have experienced difficulties in reaching their work places and students have not been able to attend their universities and schools.  This constitutes a hindrance to work and education in the Gaza Strip.  In this context, the suffering of Palestinians increases and living conditions deteriorate on all levels.

  It has become clear that the policy of closure is a systematic policy adopted by the Israeli occupation forces as an action of collective punishment against more than two million Palestinians in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.  This contradicts all international conventions and covenants, especially Article 33 of the Fourth Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, which provides that “No protected person may be punished for an offence he or she has not personally committed.  Collective penalties and likewise all measures of intimidation or of terrorism are prohibited.  Pillage is prohibited.  Reprisals against protected persons and their property are prohibited.”  In this special update, the Palestinian Centre for Human Rights continues to review the daily impact of closure on the people of the Gaza Strip.

 

1.         Continued Restrictions on Free Movement:

 The Israeli occupation authorities have continued to impose tough restrictions on the free movement and passage from the Gaza Strip to Israel, the West Bank and the outside world and vice versa.  Consequently, Palestinians have been deprived of travel from and into the Gaza Strip.  This is a blatant violation by the Israeli occupation forces of the right to free movement and travel.  About 2,000 Palestinian citizens have been waiting at the Egyptian side of Rafah Border Crossing, as the Israeli occupation authorities have refused to allow their entry since these authorities closed the Crossing on November 20, 2000.  Palestinian sources stated that the conditions of these citizens, among whom are the elderly, women and children, have worsened, as they have been waiting outside the crossing without food and proper accommodations.  In addition, thousands of Palestinian families and citizens who wish to travel for medical care abroad, or wish to come back to countries in which they reside, have been blocked in the Gaza Strip since Rafah Border Crossing was closed on November 20, 2000.  Gaza International Airport has also been closed since November 8, 2000. 

 On November 28, 2000, the Israeli occupation authorities reopened Rafah Border Crossing for travelers coming from Egypt, but with unjust and strict conditions.  Under new procedures established unilaterally by the Israeli occupation authorities, Israeli personnel carried out the procedures for the entry of about 100 travelers coming from Egypt into the Gaza Strip.  Palestinian officials refused to send any of their personnel to the Crossing in protest to changes in the established work conditions signed in agreements between the two sides.  Consequently, the Crossing remains closed in practice.  According to PCHR’s field officer in Rafah, the new work conditions at the Crossing can be summarized as follows:

1)                     A reduced Palestinian staff composed of seven employees, out of the original staff number of 220, shall be able to work at the Crossing.

2)                     Members of the Palestinian security services shall not be able to work any more at the Crossing.

3)                     The work hours at the Crossing shall be limited to seven hours a day, from 8:00 to 15:00 local time.

4)                     Cars of Palestinian employees and VIPs shall not be able to enter the Crossing.

5)                     The work at the Crossing shall be limited to procedures relative to travelers coming to the Gaza Strip, and those who wish to travel abroad shall not be able to do so.

 

The Israeli occupation authorities partially reopened Gaza International Airport on December 1, 2000, but under new work conditions and time limits, after it had been closed for more than three weeks.  But there is significantly reduced benefit in re-opening the Airport so long as Salah El-Din Street (the main road between the north and south of the Gaza Strip) is closed and so long as the Palestinian territories are cut off from one another by military roadblocks imposed by the Israeli occupation forces.  The new conditions established by the Israeli occupation authorities to operate Gaza International Airport are as follows:

1)                     The operation of the Airport shall be limited to six hours, from 9:00 to 15:00 local time.

2)                     Privileges granted to Palestinian VIPs of categories A and B shall be canceled.

3)                     Privileges granted to staff of Palestinian planes shall be canceled.

4)                     Security checking of Airport travelers shall be continued at Rafah Border Crossing.  These travelers shall be transported to the Crossing by special vehicles that shall be escorted by tanks of the Israel occupation forces instead of Israeli security personnel.  PCHR’s field officer in Rafah reported that the Israeli occupation forces demolished a part of the fence of the Airport to facilitate the entry and exit of tanks.

 Internal closures imposed on Palestinian citizens constitute another hindrance to people’s free movement.  The Israeli occupation forces have continued to close Salah El-Din Street (the main road between the north and south of the Gaza Strip), and tanks and armored vehicles of these forces have been positioned at the main junctions of the Gaza Strip.  Furthermore, these forces have closed branch and bypass roads with cement and dirt blocks.  The Israeli occupation forces have also resorted to tanks and armored vehicles to prevent the free movement of Palestinian citizens between their cities.  Consequently, the south of the Gaza Strip has been completely isolated from the north.  PCHR’s field officer in Khan Yunis reported that the Israeli occupation forces established a new military post on a tract of land owned by the family of Abu Houli, on Salah El-Din Street, to the north of Al-Matahen junction.

 In effect, Palestinian citizens have not been able to reach their work places and students have not been able to attend classes at their universities in Gaza City.  On November 23, 2000, the Israeli occupation forces partially reopened a branch road to the east of Kissufim junction, a branch road that Palestinian citizens resort to in cases when Salah El-Din Street (the main road between the north and south of the Gaza Strip) is closed.  The Israeli occupation forces opened the eastern  road from 10:00 to 12:00 and from 16:00 to 18:00 local time, allowing the passage of Palestinian citizens, but under restrictions and humiliating security procedures.  PCHR’s field officer in the middle area of the Gaza Strip reported that a Palestinian citizen from the southern area of the Gaza Strip, who was forced to travel to Gaza City, had to travel on this road by taxi at 9:00 local time in order for the taxi to be situated in a position near the road that would allow it to cross the road when it was opened.  When taxis arrived at the road, Palestinian citizens had to get out of them and walk 2-3 kilometers to reach the other side of the road, before taking another taxi to Gaza City.  The same situation was imposed on the way back in the afternoon.  Consequently, citizens could not take care of all their business in Gaza City as they lost much time on their way back and forth.  In addition, they could not reach their work places on time.

 The separation between the north and south of the Gaza Strip has disturbed the educational process as many teachers at schools in the southern area are from the middle and northern areas of the Gaza Strip.  These teachers have not been able to reach their schools in the southern area.  In this regard, UNRWA tried to avoid such disturbances through substituting teachers in these areas so that every teacher could teach at a school in his or her neighborhood.  This program only partially solved the problem.  Moreover, there are about 14,000 students from the southern area who go every day to their universities in Gaza City.  These students have faced many difficulties in reaching their universities because the above-mentioned branch road leading to Gaza City has not been open a sufficient number of hours to allow them to go and come back.  Study timetables have also been thrown into disarray.

 Additionally, there are more than 5,000 employees from the southern area of the Gaza Strip who work in institutions of the Palestinian National Authority and NGOs in Gaza City and the northern area.  They have not been able to reach their work places as usual as the hours for opening the branch road have not been squared with their work timetables.

 PCHR’s field officer in the middle areas reported that Palestinian citizens who wish to pass along the road have undergone checking by Israeli occupation troops deployed on the road.  These troops have used tear gas several times against Palestinian citizens.  As a result, these citizens have been terrified and have suffered from fainting and suffocation caused by the tear gas.

 While Palestinian citizens have suffered as a result of closing the main road between the north and south of the Gaza Strip, settlers have been allowed to move freely on the main and branch roads under the escort of the Israeli occupation forces.

 The Israeli occupation forces have also continued to impose a siege on Al-Mawasi (agricultural) area in Rafah and Khan Yunis, which is under the control of these forces.  This has increased the suffering of residents in the area, deteriorating their living and health conditions.  In addition, settlers have continuously attacked and provoked residents of the area to force them to leave the area.  The settlers have confiscated land.  In an escalatory step on December 2, 2000, the Israeli occupation forces closed six branch roads connecting Al-Mawasi (agricultural) area and its farms with the coastal road in Khan Yunis. The use of barbed wire and cement blocks has prevented the access of Palestinian farmers to their agricultural land.

 2.                     Restrictions on the Movement of Palestinian Legislative Council Members

 The arbitrary measures taken by the Israeli occupation forces since the outbreak of Al-Aqsa Intifada on September 28, 2000 have also affected the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC).  For approximately two months, the Israeli occupation authorities have prevented the access of PLC members from the Gaza Strip to the West Bank to attend the sessions of the PLC in Ramallah.  PLC members from the West Bank have also been denied access to the Gaza Strip to attend the sessions of the PLC in Gaza City.  In addition, the Israeli occupation forces imposed restrictions on the movement of PLC members inside the Gaza Strip.

 Consequently, the Palestinian parliamentary process has been paralyzed, as the PLC could not hold its sessions periodically and in quorum.  PLC members were forced to hold separate sessions in Ramallah and Gaza City on October 26 and November 6, 2000, in order to discuss the Israeli aggression against the Palestinian people and the human rights abuses committed against Palestinian civilians.

 PLC members hold VIP Cards, category B, which allow them to enter Israel and reach the West Bank with no need to secure permission from the Israeli occupation authorities.  Despite this, these Cards have not protected PLC members from arbitrary measures taken by the Israeli occupation authorities.  This is a blatant violation of the right to free movement and a degradation of the simplest concept of immunity enjoyed by elected deputies.  Continued measures of this sort by the Israeli occupation forces threaten the Palestinian parliamentary process.

 3.                     Further Deterioration in Palestinian Health

 The health situation has deteriorated since the siege was imposed.  The Israeli occupation forces have continued to obstruct the entry of trucks loaded with medicines and medical equipment into the Gaza Strip through Rafah Border Crossing.  In addition, the Israeli occupation forces have continued to obstruct the transfer of the Palestinian wounded to neighboring Arab countries.  Many Palestinian patients have been forced to wait for hours at Rafah Border Crossing.  This obstruction has worsened the health condition of the wounded, especially as these patients were critically or seriously wounded by the Israeli occupation forces.

 The Israeli occupation forces isolated the north of the Gaza Strip from the south and imposed separate geographical areas through military roadblocks and closing Salah El-Din Street (the main road between the north and south of the Gaza Strip).  As a result, physicians and medicines could not reach hospitals in the south.

 4.                     Continued Restrictions on Commercial Transactions

 Crossings and outlets to the Gaza Strip have been closed by the Israeli occupation authorities for commercial transactions.  Although the Israeli occupation authorities allowed the entry of some trucks loaded with foodstuffs into the Gaza Strip through Al-Mentar (Karni) Outlet, the number of these trucks was very limited and they entered under strict measures and restrictions.

 The Israeli occupation forces also allowed the entry of fuel and gas into the Gaza Strip after preventing it for several days during which time these materials ran out.  Palestinian official sources stated that the amount of gas which entered the Gaza Strip in the past days has not exceeded 1,000 tons.  Meanwhile, 4,200 tons of gas, which were loaded on two ships coming from France for the benefit of the Palestinian National Authority, were supposed to reach the Gaza Strip.  There is great uncertainty as to what happened to all of the gas from France.

 5.                     Further Deterioration of the Agricultural Sector

 As the siege imposed on the Gaza Strip continued, agricultural losses in the Gaza Strip increased.  The most significant measures taken by the Israeli occupation authorities that negatively affect the agricultural sector in the Gaza Strip follow:

1)                     Terrifying Palestinian farmers and preventing their access to their agricultural land adjacent to points of contact with Israeli settlements established on the lands of Palestinian citizens.

2)                     Leveling hundreds of donums of agricultural land and uprooting fruit-bearing trees.

3)                     Destroying agricultural facilities, including greenhouses, wells, irrigation networks, etc.

4)                     Obstructing the access of farmers to agricultural services and instructions.

5)                     A shortage of agricultural resources and essential materials as a result of continued closure.

6)                     Halting agricultural transportation between Palestinian areas, decreasing marketing and lowering prices.

7)                     Suspending agricultural projects aimed at developing the Palestinian agricultural sector.

 According to sources of the Palestinian Ministry of Agriculture, the total siege imposed on the occupied Palestinian territories by the Israeli occupation authorities has resulted in large losses due to preventing the export of Palestinian agricultural products.  At this time every year, daily export of vegetables and fruits is estimated at 450 tons, so the loss resulting from the prevention of export of these products has been about $6,750,000 in 60 days as the price of each ton is US$250. 

 As a result of the total siege and the prevention of the export of agricultural products, the prices of these products decreased in local markets to about US$125 per ton.  With the amount of daily Palestinian agricultural products estimated at about 2,450 tons of vegetables and fruits, of which the local community consumes about 2,000 tons, the total loss resulting from the decrease of prices in local markets is estimated at US$15,000,000 in 60 days (as the price of each ton is US$125).

 In addition, the Israeli occupation forces and groups of settlers attacked Palestinian citizens, preventing many Palestinian farmers from irrigating and cultivating their agricultural products.  On many occasions, these forces shot at Palestinian farmers to force them to leave their land.  Losses of olives in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip are estimated at US$12,857,000 because Palestinian farmers have been unable to cultivate this agricultural product in order to then sell it.  Furthermore, the Israeli occupation forces swept large areas of agricultural land planted with olives.

 In continuing their aggression against the Palestinian people, the Israeli occupation forces swept large areas of agricultural and wooded land owned by Palestinian citizens throughout the Gaza Strip.  The Israeli occupation forces swept 2828.5 donums of agricultural and wooded land in the Gaza Strip from September 28, 2000 until November 21, 2000.1 These forces also destroyed many agricultural facilities and a great deal of equipment.       

 The animal production sector was significantly damaged due to a shortage of feed and the non-access of veterinary services, which resulted in the death of a high number of birds and animals.  In addition, many citizens could not graze their cattle due to the threat posed by the Israeli occupation forces and settlers.  The animal production sector also suffered indirect losses due to the decrease in prices of animal products and the weakness in buying capacity of consumers.

 6.                     Further Deterioration in the Industrial Sector

 Losses in the industrial sector increase day by day because of the continued siege.  Although the Israeli occupation authorities partially reopened Al-Mentar (Karni) Outlet, they have continued to impose strong restrictions on the export of Palestinian products and the entry into the Gaza Strip of raw materials necessary for Palestinian industry.  Additionally, many Palestinian laborers could not reach their work places due to the internal closure imposed by the Israeli occupation forces on Palestinian cities and villages.  This has weakened the process of marketing products and led to delays in meeting obligations of Palestinian factories.

 A report by the Palestinian Ministry of Industry on the daily losses of professional industry in the Gaza Strip indicated that the daily losses to this sector were US$368,000 as the production capacity decreased by 76 percent.  In addition, the percentage of unemployment in this particular sector was 57 percent, and this number is expected to increase as long as the Israeli occupation forces continue to impose a total siege on the occupied Palestinian territories.

 In addition, the Israeli occupation forces destroyed a number of Palestinian factories as a part of its illegal policy of collective punishment against the Palestinian people and their property.  On October 4, 2000, the Israeli occupation forces shelled an iron factory, owned by a member of the Al-Aschi family, located at Al-Shuhada (Netzarim) Junction, to the south of Gaza City.  The factory, with its machines and equipment, was destroyed.  On October 30, 2000, the Israeli occupation forces shelled a factory of electrical tools, owned by the El-Souda family, near Al-Mentar (Karni) Outlet, causing severe damage to the factory.  On November 20, the Israeli occupation forces and settlers attacked Metalco aluminum factory, owned by members of the El-Rayyes and El-Ja’farawi families.  They destroyed the factory after they stole its machines and equipment.  A report by the Palestinian Ministry of Industry indicated that up to November 25, 2000, 15 Palestinian factories in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip had been attacked by the Israeli occupation forces since the outbreak of clashes between Palestinian civilians and the Israeli occupation forces.

 In addition to these losses, there have been indirect losses, including the negative impact on the investment climate.  This will inevitably have a negative effect on future local and international investment.  Furthermore, obligations of many Palestinian contracts reached with foreign countries were not met.  This will affect the credibility of Palestinian producers and will force them to pay fines for the delays.

 7.                     Continued Denial of Laborers’ Access to Work Places

 More than 24,000 Palestinian laborers from the Gaza Strip are still denied access to their work places inside Israel, as the Israeli occupation authorities have continued to prevent such movement for more than two months.  In addition, on November 26, 2000, the Israeli occupation authorities prevented the access of Palestinian laborers, working in the industrial zone in Beit Hanoun, to their work places.  Approximately 3,000 Palestinian laborers used to work in this industrial zone as blacksmiths and carpenters and in the sewing business, etc.  Occupation authorities tightened their grip on these laborers in the past few weeks through daily checks and through directing many questions at laborers.

  In addition, thousands of laborers have lost their work places in local factories because these factories have stopped their work under the siege due to the lack of raw materials they get through Israeli harbors.  This has led to a significant increase in the unemployment percentage – several sources assert that the percentage of unemployment has increased to 50 percent and a further increase is expected as long as the current siege on the occupied Palestinian territories continues.  A continuation of the siege would lead to further deterioration in living conditions and increase the poverty in the occupied Palestinian territories.

 8.                     Construction

 Construction has almost completely stopped since the siege on the Gaza Strip was imposed.  Construction raw materials have not been allowed entry into the Gaza Strip through Sofa Crossing.  As a result, construction in the Gaza Strip has almost completely stopped and construction companies and thousands of laborers and engineers have been forced to stop their work.

 On November 28, 2000, the Israeli occupation authorities allowed the entry of 650-700 tons of cement used in construction through Al-Mentar (Karni) Outlet.  Israeli trucks unloaded their cargo at the Outlet and then Palestinian trucks transported it into the Gaza Strip.  According to Palestinian official sources, approximately 75,000 tons used to be imported monthly into the Gaza Strip.  Clearly, the amount of cement allowed into the Gaza Strip does not meet the need.

 9.                     Continued Denial of the Right of Access to Holy Sites

 Under the total and extremely strict siege on the occupied Palestinian territories, Palestinians, both Muslims and Christians, have been deprived of visiting the holy sites in Jerusalem.  On November 27, 2000, the month of Ramadan (the month of fasting for Muslims) started.  In past years during this month, Palestinian Muslims in the West Bank and Gaza Strip used to pray at Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem.  Currently, the Israeli occupation forces are preventing the access of Muslims to the sacred city for prayers there, in a violation of the right to free worship.

  

 

Conclusion

 The Israeli occupation forces have continued to impose a total siege on the occupied Palestinian territories for a third consecutive month.  Contrary to the claims of the Israeli occupation forces that they have eased the siege imposed on the occupied Palestinian territories, the siege has continued to be strict.  In addition, Palestinian cities are still isolated from one another. Under the siege, the suffering of the Palestinian people is ongoing.  Living conditions in the occupied Palestinian territories have deteriorated on all levels as the impact of the siege affects all categories of people.

 PCHR disapproves of the silence of states, governments and the international community regarding the continued total siege imposed by the Israeli occupation authorities on more than two million Palestinians living in the occupied Palestinian territories.  This is part of a policy of collective punishment adopted by these authorities against the Palestinian people and their property in blatant violation of all international conventions and covenants. 

 PCHR regards the siege as a major reason for the ongoing tension in the region.  PCHR reiterates its call for the international community to immediately intervene to put an end to the violations of human rights in the occupied Palestinian territories by the Israeli occupation forces and for the international community to ensure Israel’s compliance with international conventions through:

 (a)                    Pressing Israel to lift the siege imposed on the Gaza Strip and to halt its excessive and disproportionate use of force against the Palestinian people and their property.

(b)                    Providing immediate medical and humanitarian assistance for the Palestinian people whose living conditions have increasingly deteriorated under the siege.

(c)                    Activating mechanisms of immediate intervention by the UN and its agencies, and the ICRC, to ensure the access of medical and food assistance to the occupied Palestinian territories under siege.

(d)                    Obligating Israel to respect international conventions and to comply with the UN Resolutions, especially 242 and 338, which call for a complete Israeli withdrawal from the Palestinian territories occupied in 1967.

(e)                    Taking effective steps to require Israel to respect human rights.  The European Union, under Article 2 of the Euro-Israel Association Agreement, can insist that Israel respect human rights.

 

“End”

  

Annex (1)

 Closures of crossings since Al-Aqsa Intifada began

 

The Crossing

Closure

Partially Reopening

Al-Mentar (Karni)

Closed on September 29, 2000

Re-closed on October 8, 2000

Re-closed on November 14, 2000

On October 2, 2000

On October 10, 2000

On November 19, 2000

 

Sofa

October 8, 2000 – present

 

Erez

October 8, 2000 – present

 

Rafah Border Crossing

Closed on October 8, 2000

Re-closed on October 12, 2000

Re-closed on October 16, 2000

Re-closed on November 8, 2000

On Oct. 10 with reduced staff

On October 15, 2000

On October 19, 2000

On November 20, 2000, and re-closed on the same day

Partially on November 28, 2000

Gaza International Airport

Closed on October 8, 2000

Re-closed on October 29, 2000

Re-closed on November 8, 2000

On October 15, 2000

On November 6, 2000

Partially on December 1, 2000

 



1 For more information, see the second report by PCHR on the sweeping and demolition carried out by the Israeli occupation forces in the Gaza Strip, published on November 26, 2000.